Main Features

3-D PDF Image

3D Interactive Sculpture

From the fabrication drawings of the Steel Sculpture at Minnesota State University, we have created a solid model of the sculpture using Creo Elements (Pro/Engineer) software. We have also created an “Interactive Three Dimensional PDF” file of the solid model that looks exactly like the sculpture at Minnesota State. The Interactive 3-D PDF file will allow students, instructors, and practicing engineers to manipulate the solid model;  that is,  you can view the model from different angles, pick a connection,  zoom, pan, spin, or rotate the model. The 3-D PDF file also shows the model tree (the individual components making up the virtual steel sculpture). Moreover, while holding down the Ctrl key, if you click on a connection, you will be linked to another PDF file that provides additional information for each connection type including blue prints, close-up views, field examples, sample calculations, and Finite Element models. Please click on the Virtual Sculpture image to see the tutorial video. Please send an email to and we will send you the link to the Dropbox where you can download all the files.



The Blueprint pages show the orthographic views of the Steel Sculpture connconnection 1 Field Example-1ections at Minnesota State University, Mankato. These drawings were used by the fabricator (Central Minnesota Fabricating, Inc., Willmar, MN)  to build the Steel Sculpture.


Close-up Views

As the name implies, a close-up view page shows an isolated close-up view of a connection. Close-up views of all 48 connection types of the Steel Sculpture at Minnesota State University, Mankato are provided.


Field Examples

We  have made every effort to provide at least one field example for each connection type. Additional field examples are being sought.


Sample Calculations

Each sample calculation page provides a connection 1 Field Example-2brief description of the connection, its  type, limit states,  how limit states are analyzed using AISC Steel Connection Manual. The sample calculation sheets also show in detail all the steps involved in calculating the limit states for each connection.


FEA Models

The objectives of FEA models are to  provide additional visual aids for stress distributions and deformations for three types of bolted connections under a specified  load, and to present the limitations of the FEA in design of connectors.